Periodontal disease, is also known as gum disease. During the early stages of the disease it is known as Gingivitis and the patient will present with swollen and bleeding gums. Unresolved gingivitis will progress to periodontitis, affecting the bone and can lead to loss of the tooth.
Periodontium and Gingiva
- Gingiva (Gums): It is the part of the oral mucosa covering the tooth-and forms a color around it.
- Periodontium: It is the tissue that surrounds the tooth and supports them in their position in the bone. It also supports the tooth for all itsfunctions.
It is the most common type of gum disease. It presents with the following signs and symptoms
- Red Swollen Inflamed gums.
- Bleeding from gums upon brushing
- Persistent bad breath that does not get better after even after brushing and is called halitosis.
- Pain in the gums and in-between the teeth
Causes of Gingivitis
- Accumulation of food on teeth leads to formation of a sticky invisible film mainly consisting of bacteria and is called Plaque
- Plaque if not removed and continues to form over your teeth it will turn into a hard substance called as tartar
- The plaque and tartar become a constant source of irritation to the soft gingiva and result in the inflammation and gingivitis.
Periodontal Disease (Periodontitis)
The term periodontal disease encompasses all diseases of the periodontium. The most common disease is initiated by plaque or food accumulation in the gingivodental area and is basically inflammatory in character, and the disease progresses from the gingiva to the periodontium to the bone and ultimately results in the loss of the tooth.
- Periodontal Pocket: Also known as gum pocket is the term used to describe an abnormal depth of the gingiva around the tooth and it contain debris consisting principally of microorganisms and their products, dental plaque, gingival fluid, food remnants, salivary secretion, dead cells and leukocytes.
- Periodontal abscess: It is a localized purulent (pus) inflammation in the periodontal tissues
Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Disease
- Swollen or red gums
- Gums that are painful to touch
- Bleeding from gums while brushing your teeth
- Bad odour from the mouth
- Pus visible in between the gums and the teeth
- Loose teeth.
- Tooth loss.
- Receding gums.
- Pain while eating
- Spaces developing between your teeth
- Teeth coming out of their protective housing (Tooth socket)