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Periodontal Treatment / Gum Treatment

Periodontal treatment/disease, is also known as gum treatment/disease. During the early stages of the disease it is known as Gingivitis and the patient will present with swollen and bleeding gums. Unresolved gingivitis will progress to periodontitis, affecting the bone and can lead to loss of the tooth.


Periodontium and Gingiva

  • Gingiva (Gums): It is the part of the oral mucosa covering the tooth-and forms a color around it.
  • Periodontium: It is the tissue that surrounds the tooth and supports them in their position in the bone. It also supports the tooth for all itsfunctions.


It is the most common type of gum disease. It presents with the following signs and symptoms

  • Red Swollen Inflamed gums.
  • Bleeding from gums upon brushing
  • Persistent bad breath that does not get better after even after brushing and is called halitosis.
  • Pain in the gums and in-between the teeth

Causes of Gingivitis

  • Accumulation of food on teeth leads to formation of a sticky invisible film mainly consisting of bacteria and is called Plaque
  • Plaque if not removed and continues to form over your teeth it will turn into a hard substance called as tartar
  • The plaque and tartar become a constant source of irritation to the soft gingiva and result in the inflammation and gingivitis.

Periodontal treatment/Disease (Periodontitis)

The term periodontal disease encompasses all diseases of the periodontium. The most common disease is initiated by plaque or food accumulation in the gingivodental area and is basically inflammatory in character, and the disease progresses from the gingiva to the periodontium to the bone and ultimately results in the loss of the tooth.

  • Periodontal Pocket: Also known as gum pocket is the term used to describe an abnormal depth of the gingiva around the tooth and it contain debris consisting principally of microorganisms and their products, dental plaque, gingival fluid, food remnants, salivary secretion, dead cells and leukocytes.
  • Periodontal abscess: It is a localized purulent (pus) inflammation in the periodontal tissues

Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

  • Swollen or red gums
  • Gums that are painful to touch
  • Bleeding from gums while brushing your teeth
  • Bad odour from the mouth
  • Pus visible in between the gums and the teeth
  • Loose teeth.
  • Tooth loss.
  • Receding gums.
  • Pain while eating
  • Spaces developing between your teeth
  • Teeth coming out of their protective housing (Tooth socket)
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Causes of Periodontal disease

  • The extension of inflammation from the gingiva into the supporting periodontal tissues marks the transition of the disease from gingivitis to periodontitis. The transition is associated with changes in the composition of bacterial plaque. In advanced stages, the number of bacteria harmful to the tissues surrounding the tooth increases.
  • Periodontal destruction result in loss of collagen and alveolar bone with deepening of the periodontal pocket. The reasons for the onset of destructive periods have not been totally elucidated.
  • Bone loss is accompanied by reduction in height of the bone while the bone margin remains roughly perpendicular to the tooth surface.
  • A tooth which has an endodontic lesion (Infection originating from the pulp of the tooth) may progress to periodontal loss and vice-versa. Thus it is imperative to arrest the damage to the periodontal tissues at an earlier stage to save the tooth from extensive damage. These lesions may be called Endo-Perio or Perio-Endo depending on the source of the infection. If the lesion begins as a pulpal one, it is an Endo-Perio lesion, however, if the start of the lesion is from the supporting structures around the tooth, it is called a Perio-Endo lesion.

Risks that impact Periodontal and Gingival disease

  • Poor oral hygiene habits
  • Smoking tobacco increases risks for gum disease by damaging healthy tissue and thereby impairing the body’s ability to fight infection.
  • Alcoholic drinks in excess increases your risks for gum disease, dry mouth, and oral cancer.
  • Inadequate oral care is the leading risk factor for gum disease.
  • Underlying co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes can increase the risk of periodontal disease
  • Differently abled children with lack of proper oral hygiene and care are at risk of periodontal disease
  • Hormonal changes can lead to periodontal disease like in the case of pregnancy
  • Certain medications used in the treatment of hypertension, epilepsy.
  • Certain Genetic conditions of the teeth and oral cavity
  • Nutritional deficiencies.


  • Periodontal Disease if left untreated can migrate through the blood stream and may be one of the causes for:
  • You can help prevent gum disease at home by brushing your teeth after every meal and flossing morning and night.
  • Biannual visits to the dentist, are also essential for the prevention of gum disease – and useful for the detection of gingivitis, enabling treatment before infection deepens.

At Thumbay Dental Hospital, our dentists perform the following treatment modalities for your treating diseases of the gums.

  • Scaling and Root Planning is done to treat the periodontitis and gingivitis cases
  • Gum Re-contouring with LASERS is done to provide aesthetic shape to the gum line wherever it is required
  • Periodontal Plastic Surgery to treat gummy smile
  • De-pigmentation to treat black or coloured pigments present in the gums
  • Periodontal Flap Surgery -In cases where extensive bone loss has occurred, a flap surgery involving placement of a bone graft may be deemed necessary.

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